4.4 Citations and references
What is an in-text citation?
An in-text citation provides the reader with the link to the original author(s) of the information you are quoting or paraphrasing.
You must provide consistent, accurate citations for everything that you quote or paraphrase.
"Optimism denotes a swelling of the mean belief about asset value relative to that which is reasonable or rational, given later outcomes." (Forbes, 2009, p. 141).
What is a reference?
You must also provide accurate bibliographic references for everything you use to write your assignment.
A reference provides the reader with all the information needed to accurately identify the original source of the authors you have quoted or paraphrased.
Forbes, W. (2009). Behavioural finance. New York: Wiley.
Why cite and reference?
What needs to be cited?
All information that you did not know before you read it needs to be cited, including:
Quoting and paraphrasing is discussed in more detail in 6.5 Plagiarism.
What does not need to be cited?
Facts and ideas that are considered common knowledge within a discipline do not need to be cited.
For example: In the discipline of electrical engineering, Ohm's Law (which defines the relationships between power, voltage, current, and resistance) is considered common knowledge. Similarly, for physicists, Einstein's theory of relativity (E=mc2) would not need to be cited.
More general examples include:
Strict formatting rules need to be followed to cite and reference correctly.