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This project aims to investigate policies and perspectives within the United States government towards the independence struggle and civil war in Mozambique, during the period 1960-1990. This was a formative period for newly-independent African nations and for US foreign policy in relation to the continent. It was also a time of intense Cold War conflict, and struggles within Africa were often intertwined with global politics. For Mozambique, its independence struggle against Portuguese colonialism in the 1960s and 70s was interpreted by the United States as a war between communist subversives and an allied Western government, while its post-independence civil war in the 1980s was seen as a people’s uprising against a pro-Soviet regime. Drawing on declassified American intelligence reports and diplomatic cables, this research will describe and explain the US government’s strategic overview of the region, its attitudes towards the civil conflict in Mozambique in which more than 100,000 people were killed, and its role in the peace process in Southern Africa.