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Professor Tom Riley


Since joining ECU in May 2016, Tom has obtained $240,000 in new grants and is collaborating as a Chief Investigator on 3 NHMRC and ARC grants worth $3.5M, and an additional NHMRC collaboration announcement to come. He has had 25 new publications (including in press) This year Tom was selected to participate in the Singaporean Ministry of Health, Health Manpower Development Plan (HMDP) Visiting Experts Scheme through which he has assisted the Singapore hospitals to deal with the treats posed by Clostridium difficile infection. In addition, he has been invited to present at 7 international conferences and meetings in the USA and Malaysia.

Professional Associations

  • Fellow of the Australian Society of Microbiology
  • Fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists
  • Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology
  • Fellow of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America
  • Fellow of the Faculty of Science of the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia

Awards and Prizes

University and National Teaching Awards

  • 2001 – Saal-Foley Lecturer, Australian Institute of Medical Science

National and International Research Positions

  • 2011 – Renown Visiting Researcher Award, Slovenian Research Agency
  • 2009 – Visiting Fellow, Malaysian Medical Association Foundation Infectious Diseases Fund
  • 1997 – Research Fellowship, World Health Organisation
  • 1985 – Public Health Travelling Fellowship, National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia


  • 1992 – Bilateral Science and Technology Program Award, Department of Industry and Commerce
  • 1986 – WA & MG SAW Medical Research Fellowship

Research Areas and Interests

  • The pathogenesis and epidemiology of Stenothrophomonas maltophilia infections
  • Erysipelothrix infections in man and animals
  • Infectious disease epidemiology in general, including health care related infection


  • Doctor of Philosophy, The University of Western Australia, 1985.


Recent Research Grants

  • The cobas® Liat® point-of-care (POC) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system for the laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile disease in the emergency department: implementation, evaluation and impact.,  F.Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.,  Roche Molecular Systems,  2019 - 2020,  $100,000.
  • Reducing hospital-identified Clostridium difficile infection by reducing environmental sources of C. difficile ,  Department of Health WA,  Research Translation Projects,  2017 - 2020,  $380,787.
  • Clostridium difficile infection in Western Australian (WA) adults with cystic fibrosis – disease burden, molecular epidemiology, clinical impact and the potential correlation with the gut microbiome,  Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital,  Research Advisory Committee Funding Grant 2017/18,  2017 - 2018,  $40,000.
  • Hydrosol ointment/cream for the elimination of Staphylococcus aureus (‘golden staph’) nasal carriage,  Kayban Pty Ltd,  Grant,  2016 - 2017,  $49,820.
  • Investigating Clostridium difficile infection in Western Australia using linked data,  Merck Sharp & Dohme Corporation (US),  Grant,  2016 - 2017,  $138,842.
  • Evaluation of the “new” Cepheid Xpert C. difficile BT assay for the laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile disease,  Cepheid,  Grant,  2016 - 2017,  $41,234.

Recent Publications (within the last five years)

Journal Articles

  • Imwattana, K., Knight, D., Kullin, B., Collins, D., Putsathit, P., Kiratisin, P., Riley, T., (2019), Clostridium difficile ribotype 017 - characterization, evolution and epidemiology of the dominant strain in Asia. Emerging Microbes and Infections, 8(1), 796-807, DOI: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1621670.
  • Wehrhahahn, M., Keighley, C., Kurtovic, J., Knight, D., Hong, S., Hutton, M., Lyras, D., Wang, Q., Leong, R., Borody, T., Edye, M., Riley, T., (2019), A series of three cases of severe Clostridium difficile infection in Australia associated with a binary toxin producing clade 2 ribotype 251 strain. Anaerobe, 55(February 2019), 117-123, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.11.009.
  • Roshan, N., Riley, T., Knight, D., Steer, J., Hammer, K., (2019), Natural products show diverse mechanisms of action against Clostridium difficile. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 126(2), 468-479, DOI: 10.1111/jam.14152.
  • Mitchell, B., Hall, L., White, N., Barnett, A., Halton, K., Paterson, D., Riley, T., Gardner, A., Page, K., Farrington, A., Gericke, C., Graves, N., (2019), An environmental cleaning bundle and health-care-associated infections in hospitals (REACH): a multicentre, randomised trial. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 19(4), 410-418, DOI: 10.1016/ S1473-3099(18)30714-X.
  • Riley, T., Lyras, D., Douce, GR., (2019), Status of vaccine research and development for Clostridium difficile. Vaccine, In Press(2019), 7p., DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.02.052.
  • Alfayyadh, M., Collins, D., Tempone, S., McCann, R., Armstrong, P., Riley, T., Cook, A., (2019), Recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection in the Western Australian population. Epidemiology and Infection, 147, , e153, DOI: 10.1017/s0950268819000499.
  • Knight, D., Riley, T., (2019), Genomic delineation of zoonotic origins of Clostridium difficile. Frontiers in Public Health, 7(June 2019), Article 164, DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2019.00164.
  • Imwattana, K., Wangroongsarb, P., Riley, T., (2019), High prevalence and diversity of tcdA-negative and tcdB-positive, and non-toxigenic, Clostridium difficile in Thailand. Anaerobe, 57(2019), 4-10, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2019.03.008.
  • Tague, A., Putsathit, P., Hammer, K., Wales, S., Knight, D., Riley, T., Keller, P., Pyne, S., (2019), Cationic biaryl 1,2,3-triazolyl peptidomimetic amphiphiles: synthesis, antibacterial evaluation and preliminary mechanism of action studies. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 168(2019), 386-404, DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.02.013.
  • Tague, A., Putsathit, P., Hutton, M., Hammer, K., Wales, S., Knight, D., Riley, T., Lyras, D., Keller, P., Pyne, S., (2019), Cationic biaryl 1,2,3-triazolyl peptidomimetic amphiphiles targeting Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile: Synthesis, antibacterial evaluation and an in vivo C. difficile infection model. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 170(2019), 203-224, DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.02.068.
  • Knight, D., Kullin, B., Androga, G., Barbut, F., Eckert, C., Johnson, S., Spigaglia, P., Tateda, K., Tsai, P., Riley, T., (2019), Evolutionary and Genomic Insights into Clostridioides difficile Sequence Type 11: a Diverse Zoonotic and Antimicrobial- Resistant Lineage of Global One Health Importance. mBio, 10(2), e00446-19, DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00446-19.
  • Lim, S., Androga, G., Knight, D., Moono, P., Foster, N., Riley, T., (2018), Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from food and environmental sources in Western Australia. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 52(3), 411-415, Netherlands, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2018.05.013.
  • Brain, D., Barnett, A., Yakob, L., Clements, A., Riley, T., Halton, K., Grave, N., (2018), Reducing length of stay to improve Clostridium difficile-related health outcomes. Infection, Disease and Health, 23(2), 87-92, DOI: 10.1016/j.idh.2018.01.001.
  • Knetsch, C., Kumar, N., Forster, S., Connor, T., Browne, H., Harmanus, C., Sanders, I., Harris, S., Turner, L., Morris, T., Perry, M., Miyajima, F., Roberts, P., Pirmohamed, M., Songer, J., Weese, J., Indra, A., Corver, J., Rupnik, M., Wren, B., Riley, T., Kuijper, E., Lawley, T., (2018), Zoonotic Transfer of Clostridium difficile Harboring Antimicrobial Resistance between Farm Animals and Humans. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 56(3), e01384-17, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01384-17.
  • Brain, D., Yakob, L., Barnett, A., Riley, T., Clements, A., Halton, K., Graves, N., (2018), Economic evaluation of interventions designed to reduce Clostridium difficile infection. PLoS One, 13(1), e0190093, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190093.
  • Carter, G., Ussher, J., Da Silva, A., Baines, S., Heffernan, H., Riley, T., Broadbent, R., Van Der Linden, A., Lee, J., Monk, I., Stinear, T., Howden, B., Williamson, D., (2018), Genomic Analysis of Multiresistant Staphylococcus capitis Associated with Neonatal Sepsis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 62(11), Article number e00898-18, DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00898-18.
  • Riley, T., Collins, D., Karunakaran, R., Kahar, M., Adnan, A., Hassan, SA., Zainul, N., Rustam, F., Wahab, Z., Lee, YY., Ramli, R., Hassan, H., (2018), High prevalence of toxigenic and nontoxigenic Clostridium difficile strains in Malaysia. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 56(6), article no.e00170-18, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.00170-18.
  • McGovern, A., Androga, G., Moono, P., Collins, D., Foster, N., Chang, B., Riley, T., (2018), Evaluation of the Cepheid® Xpert® C. difficile binary toxin (BT) diagnostic assay. Anaerobe, 51(June 2018), 12-16, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.004.
  • Androga, G., Knight, D., Lim, S., Foster, N., Riley, T., (2018), Antimicrobial resistance in large clostridial toxin-negative, binary toxin-positive Clostridium difficile ribotypes. Anaerobe, 54(2018), 55-60, United Kingdom, Academic Press, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.07.007.
  • Amy, J., Bulach, D., Knight, D., Riley, T., Johanesen, P., Lyras, D., (2018), Identification of large cryptic plasmids in Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile. Plasmid, 96-97(2018), 25-38, United States, Academic Press, DOI: 10.1016/j.plasmid.2018.04.001.
  • Roshan, N., Riley, T., Knight, D., Hammer, K., (2018), Effect of natural products on the production and activity of Clostridium difficile toxins in vitro. Scientific Reports, 8(1), Article number 15735, United Kingdom, Nature Publishing Group, DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-33954-2.
  • Roshan, N., Riley, T., Hammer, K., (2018), Effects of natural products on several stages of the spore cycle of Clostridium difficile in vitro. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 125(3), 710-723, United Kingdom, Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc., DOI: 10.1111/jam.13889.
  • Roshan, N., Hammer, K., Riley, T., (2018), Non-conventional antimicrobial and alternative therapies for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. Anaerobe, 49(Feb 2018), 103-111, United Kingdom, Academic Press, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.003.
  • Riley, T., Kimura, T., (2018), The Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile Infection in Japan: A Systematic Review. Infectious diseases and therapy, 7(1), 39-70, United States, Springer Healthcare, DOI: 10.1007/s40121-018-0186-1.
  • Mitchell, B., White, N., Farrington, A., Allen, M., Page, K., Gardner, A., Halton, K., Riley, T., Gericke, C., Paterson, D., Graves, N., Hall, L., (2018), Changes in knowledge and attitudes of hospital environmental services staff: The Researching Effective Approaches to Cleaning in Hospitals (REACH) study. American Journal of Infection Control, 46(9), 980-985, United States, Mosby, Inc, DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2018.02.003.
  • Man, N., Knight, D., Stewart, S., McKinley, A., Riley, T., Hammer, K., (2018), Spectrum of antibacterial activity and mode of action of a novel trisstilbene bacteriostatic compound. Scientific Reports, 8(2018), Article no. 6912, United Kingdom, Nature Publishing Group, DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-25080-w.
  • Lim, SC., Foster, NF., Elliott, B., Riley, T., (2018), High prevalence of Clostridium difficile on retail root vegetables, Western Australia. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 124(2), 585-590, United Kingdom, Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc., DOI: 10.1111/jam.13653.
  • Collins, D., Riley, T., (2018), Clostridium difficile in Asia: Opportunities for One Health Management. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases, 4(1), article no.7, DOI: 10.3390/tropicalmed4010007.
  • Larcombe, S., Hutton, M., Riley, T., Abud, H., Lyras, D., (2018), Diverse bacterial species contribute to antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and gastrointestinal damage. Journal of Infection, 77(5), 417-426, United Kingdom, W B Saunders Co.Ltd, DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2018.06.006.
  • Carter, G., Harjani, J., Li, L., Pitcher, N., Nong, Y., Riley, T., Williamson, D., Stinear, T., Baell, J., Howden, B., (2018), 1,2,4-Oxadiazole antimicrobials act synergistically with daptomycin and display rapid kill kinetics against MDR Enterococcus faecium. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 73(6), 1562-1569, United Kingdom, Oxford University Press, DOI: 10.1093/jac/dky064.
  • Malhi, H., Tu, J., Riley, T., Kumarasinghe, S., Hammer, K., (2017), Tea tree oil gel for mild to moderate acne; a 12 week uncontrolled, open-label phase II pilot study. Australasian Journal of Dermatology, 58(3), 205-210, Australia, Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia, DOI: 10.1111/ajd.12465.
  • Putsathit, P., Maneerattanaporn, M., Piewngam, P., Kiratisin, P., Riley, T., (2017), Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in Thailand. New Microbes and New Infections, 15(n/a), 27-32, DOI: 10.1016/j.nmni.2016.10.004.
  • Cheong, E., Roberts, T., Rattanavong, S., Riley, T., Newton, P., Dance, D., (2017), Clostridium difficile infection in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic: first isolationand review of the literature. BMC Infectious Diseases, 17(September), Article No. 635, London, United Kingdom, BioMed Central Ltd, DOI: 10.1186/s12879-017-2737-6.
  • Collins, D., Selvey, L., Celenza, A., Riley, T., (2017), Community-associated Clostridium difficile infection in emergency department patients in Western Australia. Anaerobe, 48(August 2017), 121-125, London, United Kingdom, Academic Press, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.08.008.
  • Zainul, NH., Ma, ZF., Besari, A., Hassan, SA., Rahman, RA., Collins, D., Hamid, N., Riley, T., Lee, YY., (2017), Prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection and colonization in a tertiary hospital and elderly community of North-Eastern Peninsular Malaysia. Epidemiology and Infection, 145(14), 3012-3019, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press, DOI: 10.1017/S0950268817002011.
  • Knight, DR., Squire, MM., Collins, D., Riley, T., (2017), Genome Analysis of Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotype 014 Lineage in Australian Pigs and Humans Reveals a Diverse Genetic Repertoire and Signatures of Long-Range Interspecies Transmission. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7(2138), 48, DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.02138.
  • Elliott, B., Androga, G., Knight, DR., Riley, T., (2017), Clostridium difficile infection: Evolution, phylogeny and molecular epidemiology. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 49(1), 1-11, Netherlands, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2016.12.018.
  • Collins, D., Gasem, MH., Habibie, TH., Arinton, IG., Hendriyanto, P., Hartana, AP., Riley, T., (2017), Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in Indonesia. New Microbes and New Infections, 18(July 2017), 34-37, Bromley, United Kingdom, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.nmni.2017.04.006.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Riley, T., Paterson, D., Foster, N., Huber, C., Hong, S., Harris-Brown, T., Robson, J., Clements, A., (2017), Comparison of Clostridium difficile Ribotypes Circulating in Australian Hospitals and Communities. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 55(1), 216-225, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01779-16.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Suhail, AR., Paterson, D., Helms, S., Yakob, L., McKenzie, S., Garborg, K., Emanuelsson, F., Stollman, N., Kronman, M., Clark, J., Huber, C., Riley, T., Clements, A., (2017), Upper Versus Lower Gastrointestinal Delivery for Transplantation of Fecal Microbiota in Recurrent or Refractory Clostridium difficile Infection. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 51(2), 145-150, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, DOI: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000511.
  • Moono, P., Lim, SC., Riley, T., (2017), High prevalence of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in public space lawns in Western Australia. Scientific Reports, 7(1 Feb. 2017), Article number 41196, Nature, DOI: 10.1038/srep41196.
  • Engelhardt, N., Foster, N., Hong, S., Riley, T., McGechie, D., (2017), Comparison of two environmental sampling tools for the detection of Clostridium difficile spores on hard bathroom surfaces in the hospital setting. Journal of Hospital Infection, 96(3), 295-296, United Kingdom, W.B Saunders Co Ltd, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhin.2017.03.028.
  • Stoesser, N., Eyre, D., Quan, TP., Godwin, H., Pill, G., Mbuvi, E., Vaughan, A., Griffiths, D., Martin, J., Fawley, W., Dingle, K., Oakley, S., Wanelik, K., Finney, J., Kachrimanidou, M., Moore, C., Gorbach, S., Riley, T., Crook, D., Peto, T., Wilcox, M., Walker, AS., (2017), Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile in infants in Oxfordshire, UK: Risk factors for colonization and carriage, and genetic overlap with regional C. difficile infection strains. PLoS One, 12(8), Article no. e0182307, United States, Public Library of Science, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182307.
  • Roshan, N., Riley, T., Hammer, K., (2017), Antimicrobial activity of natural products against Clostridium difficile in vitro. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 123(1), 92-103, United Kingdom, Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd, DOI: 10.1111/jam.13486.
  • Putsathit, P., Maneerattanaporn, M., Piewngam, P., Knight, DR., Kiratisin, P., Riley, T., (2017), Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated in Thailand. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 6(1), Article no. 58, United Kingdom, BioMed Central Ltd, DOI: 10.1186/s13756-017-0214-z.
  • Cairns, M., Preston, M., Hall, C., Gerding, D., Hawkey, P., Kato, H., Kim, H., Kuijper, E., Lawley, T., Pituch, H., Reid, S., Kullin, B., Riley, T., Solomon, K., Tsai, P., Weese, J., Stabler, R., Wren, B., (2017), Comparative genome analysis and global phylogeny of the toxin variant Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 017 reveals the evolution of two independent sublineages. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 55(3), 865-876, Washington, USA, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01296-16.
  • Chen, Y., Glass, K., Liu, B., Riley, T., Korda, R., Kirk, M., (2017), A population-based longitudinal study of Clostridium difficile infection-related hospitalization in mid-age and older Australians. Epidemiology and Infection, 145(3), 575-582, DOI: 10.1017/S0950268816002260.
  • McGovern, AM., Androga, GO., Knight, DR., Watson, MW., Elliott, B., Foster, NF., Chang, BJ., Riley, T., (2017), Prevalence of binary toxin positive Clostridium difficile in diarrhoeal humans in the absence of epidemic ribotype 027. PLoS One, 12(11), article no. e0187658, California, USA, Public Library of Science, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187658.
  • Collins, D., Putsathit, P., Elliott, B., Riley, T., (2017), Laboratory-based surveillance of Clostridium difficile strains circulating in the Australian healthcare setting in 2012. Pathology, 49(3), 309-13, DOI: 10.1016/j.pathol.2016.10.013.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Clements, A., Foster, N., Huber, C., Song, S., Harris-Brown, T., Yakob, L., Paterson, D., Riley, T., (2017), Asymptomatic Clostridium difficile colonization in two Australian tertiary hospitals, 2012-2014: prospective, repeated cross-sectional study. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 23(1), 48.e1-48.e7, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.cmi.2016.08.030.
  • Chen, Y., Glass, K., Liu, B., Korda, R., Riley, T., Kirk, M., (2017), Burden of Clostridium difficile infection: Associated hospitalization in a cohort of middle-aged and older adults. American Journal of Infection Control, 45(5), 508-511, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2016.12.006.
  • Mitchell, B., Farrington, A., Allen, M., Gardner, A., Hall, L., Barnett, A., Halton, K., Page, K., Dancer, S., Riley, T., Gericke, C., Paterson, D., Graves, N., (2017), Variation in hospital cleaning practice and process in Australian hospitals: A structured mapping exercise. Infection, Disease and Health, 22(4), 195-202, Netherlands, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.idh.2017.08.001.
  • Hall, L., Farrington, A., Mitchell, B., Barnett, A., Halton , K., Allen, M., Page, K., Gardner, A., Havers, S., Bailey, E., Dancer, S., Riley, T., Gericke, C., Paterson, D., Graves, N., (2016), Researching effective approaches to cleaning in hospitals: protocol of the REACH study, a multi-site stepped-wedge randomised trial. Implementation Science, 11(1), Article no. 44, BioMed Central Ltd., DOI: 10.1186/s13012-016-0406-6.
  • Trubiano, J., Cheng, A., Korman, T., Roder, C., Campbell, A., May, M., Blyth, C., Ferguson, J., Blackmore, T., Riley, T., Athan, E., (2016), Australasian Society of Infectious Diseases updated guidelines for the management of Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children in Australia and New Zealand. Internal Medicine Journal, 46(4), 479-493, Blackwell Publishing, DOI: 10.1111/imj.13027.
  • Selvey, L., Slimings, C., Joske, D., Riley, T., (2016), Clostridium difficile infections amongst patients with haematological malignancies: A data linkage study. PLoS One, 11(6), e0157839, Public Library of Science, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0157839.
  • Bloomfield, L., Riley, T., (2016), Epidemiology and risk factors for community-associated Clostridium difficile infection: A narrative review. Infectious diseases and therapy, 5(3), 231-251, DOI: 10.1007/s40121-016-0117-y.
  • Carson, K., Riley, T., (2016), Comparison of the Vidas C. difficile and Quik Chek-60 glutamate dehydrogenase assays for the detection of Clostridium difficile in faecal samples. Pathology, 48(5), 506-508, Elsevier B.V., DOI: 10.1016/j.pathol.2016.04.007.
  • Collins, D., Riley, T., (2016), Routine detection of Clostridium difficile in Western Australia. Anaerobe, 37(2016), 34-37, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2015.11.007.
  • Moono, P., Putsathit, P., Knight, D., Squire, M., Hampson, D., Foster, N., Riley, T., (2016), Persistence of Clostridium difficile RT 237 infection in a Western Australian piggery. Anaerobe, 37(01), 62-66, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2015.11.012.
  • Lim, S., Foster, N., Riley, T., (2016), Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite. Anaerobe, 37(1), 67-71, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2015.12.004.
  • Knight, D., Androga, G., Ballard, S., Howden, B., Riley, T., (2016), A Phenotypically Silent vanB2 Operon Carried on a Tn1549-Like Element in Clostridium difficile. mSphere, 1(4), article no. e00177-16, DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00177-16.
  • Knight, D., Riley, T., (2016), Clostridium difficile clade 5 in Australia: Antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of PCR ribotypes of human and animal origin. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 71(8), 2213-2217, DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkw124.
  • Knight, DR., Putsathit, P., Elliott, B., Riley, T., (2016), Contamination of Australian newborn calf carcasses at slaughter with Clostridium difficile. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 22(3), 266.e1-266.e7, Oxford, UK, Elsevier Ltd, DOI: 10.1016/j.cmi.2015.11.017.
  • Cheng, AC., Collins, D., Elliott, B., Ferguson, JK., Paterson, DL., Thean, S., Riley, T., (2016), Laboratory-based surveillance of Clostridium difficile circulating in Australia, September – November 2010. Pathology, 48(3), 257-260, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.pathol.2016.02.005.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Yakob, L., Riley, T., Paterson, D., Baker, P., McKenzie, S., Robson, J., Clements, A., (2016), Community-Acquired Clostridium difficile Infection, Queensland, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(9), 1659-1661, DOI: 10.3201/eid2209.151115.
  • Dunne, E., Carville, K., Riley, T., Bowman, J., Leach, A., Cripps, A., Murphy, D., Jacoby, P., Lehmann, D., (2016), Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in Western Australia carry different serotypes of pneumococci with different antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Pneumonia, 8(15), 9p., BioMed Central, DOI: 10.1186/s41479-016-0015-9.
  • Moono, P., Foster, N., Hampson, D., Knight, D., Bloomfield, L., Riley, T., (2016), Clostridium difficile Infection in Production Animals and Avian Species: A Review. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, 13(12), 647-655, Mary Ann Liebert, DOI: 10.1089/fpd.2016.2181.
  • Wales, S., Hammer, K., Somphol, K., Kemker, I., Schroder, D., Tague, A., Brkic, Z., King, A., Lyras, D., Riley, T., Bremner, J., Keller, P., Pyne, S., (2015), Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of binaphthyl-based, functionalized oxazole and thiazole peptidomimetics. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 13(44), 10813-10824, Royal Society of Chemistry, DOI: 10.1039/c5ob01638j.
  • Knight, D., Hart, J., Gottardo, N., Eyre, D., Crook, D., Riley, T., (2015), Two cases of Clostridium difficile infection in unrelated oncology patients attributable to a single clone of C. difficile PCR ribotype 126. JMM Case Reports, Online(Online), 5p., London, UK, The Microbiology Society, DOI: 10.1099/jmmcr.0.000043.
  • Androga, G., McGovern, A., Elliott, B., Chang, B., Perkins, T., Foster, N., Riley, T., (2015), Evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert C. difficile/Epi and Meridian Bioscience illumigene C. difficile Assays for Detecting Clostridium difficile Ribotype 033 Strains. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 53(3), 973-975, Washington, USA, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.03297-14.
  • Androga, G., Hart, J., Foster, N., Charles, A., Forbes, D., Riley, T., (2015), Infection with toxin a-negative, toxin b-negative, binary toxin-positive clostridium difficile in a young patient with ulcerative colitis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 53(11), 3702-3704, Washington, USA, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01810-15.
  • Eyre, DW., Tracey, L., Elliott, B., Slimings, C., Huntington, PG., Stuart, RL., Korman, TM., Kotsiou, G., McCann, R., Griffiths, D., Fawley, WN., Armstrong, P., Dingle, KE., Walker, AS., Peto, TE., Crook, DW., Wilcox, MH., Riley, T., (2015), Emergence and spread of predominantly community-onset Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 244 infection in Australia, 2010 to 2012. Euro Surveillance, 20(10), 21059, Sweden, Eurosurveillance, DOI: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES2015.20.10.21059.
  • Knight, DR., Elliott, B., Chang, BJ., Perkins, TT., Riley, T., (2015), Diversity and Evolution in the Genome of Clostridium difficile. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 28(3), 721-741, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/CMR.00127-14.
  • Mackin, KE., Elliott, B., Kotsanas, D., Howden, BP., Carter, GP., Korman, TM., Riley, T., Rood, JI., Jenkin, GA., Lyras, D., (2015), Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Clostridium difficile clinical isolates from Victoria, Australia. Anaerobe, 34(1), 80-83, Academic Press, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2015.05.001.
  • Mori, N., Yoshizawa, S., Saga, T., Ishii, Y., Murakami, H., Iwata, M., Collins, D., Riley, T., Tateda, K., (2015), Incorrect diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection in a university hospital in Japan. J Infect Chemother, 21(10), 718-22, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.jiac.2015.06.009.
  • Wales, S., Hammer, K., King, AM., Tague, A., Lyras, D., Riley, T., Keller, P., Pyne, S., (2015), Binaphthyl-1,2,3-triazole peptidomimetics with activity against Clostridium difficile and other pathogenic bacteria. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 13(20), 5743-5756, Royal Society of Chemistry, DOI: 10.1039/c5ob00576k.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., McKenzie, S., Yakob, L., Clark, J., Paterson, D., Riley, T., Clements, A., (2015), Clostridium difficile infection seasonality: Patterns across hemispheres and continents – A systematic review. PLoS One, 10(3), Article no. e0120730, Public Library of Science, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120730.
  • Collins, D., Elliott, B., Riley, T., (2015), Molecular methods for detecting and typing of Clostridium difficile. Pathology, 47(3), 211-218, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, DOI: 10.1097/PAT.0000000000000238.
  • Jennepalli, S., Hammer, K., Riley, T., Pyne, S., Keller, P., (2015), Synthesis of mono and bis[60]fullerene-based dicationic peptoids. European Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2015(1), 195-201, Wiley-VCH Verlag, DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201403046.
  • Knight, D., Squire, M., Riley, T., (2015), Nationwide surveillance study of Clostridium difficile in Australian neonatal pigs shows high prevalence and heterogeneity of PCR ribotypes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 81(1), 119-123, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/AEM.03032-14.
  • Knight, D., Giglio, S., Huntington, P., Korman, T., Kotsanas, D., Moore, C., Paterson, D., Prendergast, L., Huber, C., Robson, J., Waring, L., Wehrhahn, M., Weldhagen, G., Wilson, R., Riley, T., (2015), Surveillance for antimicrobial resistance in Australian isolates of Clostridium difficile, 2013–14. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 70(11), 2992-2999, Oxford University Press, DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkv220.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Stone, J., Clark, J., McKenzie, S., Yakob, L., Paterson, D., Riley, T., Doi, S., Clements, A., (2015), Comorbidities, exposure to medications, and the risk of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 36(2), 132-141, University of Chicago Press, DOI: 10.1017/ice.2014.39.
  • Chong, R., Shinwari, M., Amigh, M., Aravena-Roman, M., Riley, T., (2015), First report of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae-associated septicaemia and histologic changes in cultured Australian eels, Anguilla reinhardtii (Steindachner, 1867) and A. australis (Richardson, 1841). Journal of Fish Diseases, 38(9), 837-847, Blackwell, DOI: 10.1111/jfd.12293.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Wangdi, K., Yakob, L., McKenzie, S., Doi, S., Clark, J., Paterson, D., Riley, T., Clements, A., (2015), 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 41(5), 890-895, Sage, DOI: 10.1177/0148607115623457.
  • Putsathit, P., Morgan, J., Bradford, D., Engelhardt, N., Riley, T., (2015), Evaluation of the BD Max Cdiff assay for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in human stool specimens. Pathology, 47(2), 165-168, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, DOI: 10.1097/PAT.0000000000000214.
  • Putsathit, P., Kiratisin, P., Ngamwongsatit, P., Riley, T., (2015), Clostridium difficile infection in Thailand. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 45(1), 1-7, Amsterdam, Netherlands, Elsevier BV, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2014.09.005.
  • Ngamskulrungroj, P., Sanmee, S., Pusathit, P., Piewngam, P., Elliott, B., Riley, T., Kiratisin, P., (2015), Molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in a large teaching hospital in Thailand. PLoS One, 10(5), Article number e0127026, United States, Public Library of Science, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127026.
  • Yakob, L., Riley, T., Paterson, D., Marquess, J., Magalhaes, R., Furuya-Kanamori, L., Clements, A., (2015), Mechanisms of hypervirulent Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 displacement of endemic strains: An epidemiological model. Scientific Reports, 5(2015), Article no. 12666, Nature Publishing Group, DOI: 10.1038/srep12666.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Marquess, J., Yakob, L., Riley, T., Paterson, D., Foster, N., Huber, C., Clements, A., (2015), Asymptomatic Clostridium difficile colonization: epidemiology and clinical implications. BMC Infectious Diseases, 15(1), Article no. 516, BioMed Central Ltd., DOI: 10.1186/s12879-015-1258-4.
  • Tracey, L., Kirke, A., Armstrong, P., Riley, T., (2015), From the hospital to the home – The rise and rise of Clostridium difficile infection. Australian Family Physician, 44(10), 712-717, South Melbourne, Victoria, The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners.
  • Slimings, C., Armstrong, P., Beckingham, WD., Bull, AL., Hall, L., Kennedy, K., Marquess, J., McCann, R., Menzies, A., Mitchell, BG., Richards, MJ., Smollen, PC., Tracey, L., Wilkinson, IJ., Wilson, FL., Worth, LJ., Riley, T., (2014), Increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infection, Australia, 2011-2012. Medical Journal of Australia, 200(5), 272-276, Australia, Australasian Medical Publishing Co. Ltd, DOI: 10.5694/mja13.11153.
  • Aravena-Roman, M., Inglis, T., Riley, T., Chang, B., (2014), Distribution of 13 virulence genes among clinical and environmental Aeromonas spp. in Western Australia. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: an international journal on pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases, 33(11), 1889-1895, Springer Verlag, DOI: 10.1007/s10096-014-2157-0.
  • Elliott, B., Dingle, K., Didelot, X., Crook, DW., Riley, T., (2014), The complexity and diversity of the pathogenicity locus in Clostridium difficile clade 5. Genome Biology and Evolution, 6(12), 3159-3170, Oxford University Press, DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evu248.
  • Dingle, K., Elliott, B., Robinson, E., Griffiths, D., Eyre, D., Stoesser, N., Vaughan, A., Golubchik, T., Fawley, WN., Wilcox, MH., Peto, TE., Walker, AS., Riley, T., Crook, DW., Didelot, X., (2014), Evolutionary history of the Clostridium difficile pathogenicity locus. Genome Biology and Evolution, 6(1), 36-52, Oxford University Press, DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evt204.
  • Knight, D., Squire, M., Riley, T., (2014), Laboratory detection of Clostridium difficile in piglets in Australia. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 52(11), 3856-3862, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01225-14.
  • Lee, J., Lee, Y., Lee, K., Riley, T., Kim, H., (2014), The changes of PCR ribotype and antimicrobial resistance of Clostridium difficile in a tertiary care hospital over 10 years. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 63(6), 819-823, Society for General Microbiology, DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.072082-0.
  • Manzo, C., Merrigan, M., Johnson, S., Gerding, D., Riley, T., Silva, J., Brazier, J., Tang-Feldman, Y., Delmee, M., Wilks, M., Mulligan, M., (2014), International typing study of Clostridium difficile. Anaerobe, 28(2014), 4-7, Academic Press, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2014.04.005.
  • Pickering, J., Smith-Vaughan, H., Beissbarth, J., Bowman, M., Wiertsema, S., Riley, T., Leach, A., Richmond, P., Lehmann, D., Kirkham, L., (2014), Diversity of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Strains Colonizing Australian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 52(5), 1352-1357, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.03448-13.
  • Huber, C., Hall, L., Foster, N., Gray, M., Allen, M., Richardson , L., Robson, J., Vohra, R., Schlebusch, S., George, N., Nimmo, G., Riley, T., Paterson, D., (2014), Surveillance snapshot of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitals across Queensland detects binary toxin producingribotype UK 244. Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 38(4), E279-E284.
  • Tan, XQ., Verrall, AJ., Jureen, R., Riley, T., Collins, D., Lin, RT., Balm, MN., Chan, D., Tambyah, PA., (2014), The emergence of community-onset Clostridium difficile infection in a tertiary hospital in Singapore: A cause for concern. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 43(1), 47-51, Elsevier BV, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2013.09.011.
  • Foster, N., Collins, D., Ditchburn, S., Duncan, C., Van Schalkwyk, J., Golledge, C., Keed, A., Riley, T., (2014), Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in two tertiary-care hospitals in Perth, Western Australia: a cross-sectional study. New Microbes and New Infections, 2(3), 64-71, Elsevier Ltd, DOI: 10.1002/nmi2.43.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Robson, J., Soares Magalhaes, R., Yakob, L., McKenzie, S., Paterson, D., Riley, T., Clements, A., (2014), A population-based spatio-temporal analysis of Clostridium difficile infection in Queensland, Australia over a 10-year period. Journal of Infection, 69(5), 447-455, W.B. Saunders Ltd, DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2014.06.014.
  • Lim, SK., Stuart, RL., Mackin, KE., Carter, GP., Kotsanas, D., Francis, MJ., Easton, M., Dimovski, K., Elliott, B., Riley, T., Hogg, G., Paul, E., Korman, T., Seemann, T., Stinear, TP., Lyras, D., Jenkin, GA., (2014), Emergence of a ribotype 244 strain of clostridium difficile associated with severe disease and related to the epidemic ribotype 027 strain. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 58(15 June), 1723-1730, Cary, USA, Oxford University Press, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciu203.
  • Slimings, C., Riley, T., (2014), Antibiotics and hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection: update of systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 69(4), 881-891, Oxon, UK, Oxford University Press, DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkt477.
  • Yakob, L., Riley, T., Paterson, D., Marquess, J., Clements, A., (2014), Assessing control bundles for Clostridium difficile: a review and mathematical model. Emerging Microbes and Infections, 3(2014), Article no. e43, Nature Publishing Group, DOI: 10.1038/emi.2014.43.
  • Hart , J., Putsathit, P., Knight, D., Sammels, L., Riley, T., Keil, A., (2014), Clostridium difficile infection diagnosis in a paediatric population: comparison of methodologies. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: an international journal on pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases, 33(9), 1555-1564, Springer Verlag, DOI: 10.1007/s10096-014-2108-9.
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