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Professor Tom Riley


Since joining ECU in May 2016, Tom has obtained $240,000 in new grants and is collaborating as a Chief Investigator on 3 NHMRC and ARC grants worth $3.5M, and an additional NHMRC collaboration announcement to come. He has had 25 new publications (including in press) This year Tom was selected to participate in the Singaporean Ministry of Health, Health Manpower Development Plan (HMDP) Visiting Experts Scheme through which he has assisted the Singapore hospitals to deal with the treats posed by Clostridium difficile infection. In addition, he has been invited to present at 7 international conferences and meetings in the USA and Malaysia.

Professional Associations

  • Fellow of the Australian Society of Microbiology
  • Fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists
  • Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology
  • Fellow of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America
  • Fellow of the Faculty of Science of the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia

Awards and Prizes

University and National Teaching Awards

  • 2001 – Saal-Foley Lecturer, Australian Institute of Medical Science

National and International Research Positions

  • 2011 – Renown Visiting Researcher Award, Slovenian Research Agency
  • 2009 – Visiting Fellow, Malaysian Medical Association Foundation Infectious Diseases Fund
  • 1997 – Research Fellowship, World Health Organisation
  • 1985 – Public Health Travelling Fellowship, National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia


  • 1992 – Bilateral Science and Technology Program Award, Department of Industry and Commerce
  • 1986 – WA & MG SAW Medical Research Fellowship

Research Areas and Interests

  • The pathogenesis and epidemiology of Stenothrophomonas maltophilia infections
  • Erysipelothrix infections in man and animals
  • Infectious disease epidemiology in general, including health care related infection


  • Doctor of Philosophy, The University of Western Australia, 1985.


Recent Research Grants

  • Reducing hospital-identified Clostridium difficile infection by reducing environmental sources of C. difficile ,  Department of Health WA,  Research Translation Projects,  2017 - 2019,  $380,787.
  • Clostridium difficile infection in Western Australian (WA) adults with cystic fibrosis – disease burden, molecular epidemiology, clinical impact and the potential correlation with the gut microbiome,  Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital,  Research Advisory Committee Funding Grant 2017/18,  2017 - 2018,  $40,000.
  • Hydrosol ointment/cream for the elimination of Staphylococcus aureus (‘golden staph’) nasal carriage,  Kayban Pty Ltd,  Grant,  2016 - 2017,  $49,820.
  • Investigating Clostridium difficile infection in Western Australia using linked data,  Merck Sharp & Dohme Corporation (US),  Grant,  2016 - 2017,  $138,842.
  • Evaluation of the “new” Cepheid Xpert C. difficile BT assay for the laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile disease,  Cepheid,  Grant,  2016 - 2017,  $41,234.

Recent Publications (within the last five years)

Journal Articles

  • Riley, T., Collins, D., Karunakaran, R., Kahar, M., Adnan, A., Hassan, SA., Zainul, N., Rustam, F., Ramli, R., Wahab, Z., Lee, YY., Hassan, H., (2018), High prevalence of toxigenic and nontoxigenic Clostridium difficile strains in Malaysia. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 56(6), e00170-18, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.00170-18.
  • McGovern, A., Androga, G., Moono, P., Collins, D., Foster, N., Chang, B., Riley, T., (2018), Evaluation of the Cepheid® Xpert® C. difficile binary toxin (BT) diagnostic assay. Anaerobe, 51(1), 12-16.
  • Collins, D., Riley, T., (2018), Letter re: Clostridium difficile guidelines. Clinical Infectious Diseases, n/a(n/a), n/a, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciy249.
  • Knight, DR., Squire, MM., Collins, D., Riley, T., (2017), Genome Analysis of Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotype 014 Lineage in Australian Pigs and Humans Reveals a Diverse Genetic Repertoire and Signatures of Long-Range Interspecies Transmission. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7(2138), 48, DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.02138.
  • Engelhardt, N., Foster, N., Hong, S., Riley, T., McGechie, D., (2017), Comparison of two environmental sampling tools for the detection of Clostridium difficile spores on hard bathroom surfaces in the hospital setting. Journal of Hospital Infection, 96(3), 295-296, United Kingdom, W.B Saunders Co Ltd, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhin.2017.03.028.
  • Stoesser, N., Eyre, D., Quan, TP., Godwin, H., Pill, G., Mbuvi, E., Vaughan, A., Griffiths, D., Martin, J., Fawley, W., Dingle, K., Oakley, S., Wanelik, K., Finney, J., Kachrimanidou, M., Moore, C., Gorbach, S., Riley, T., Crook, D., Peto, T., Wilcox, M., Walker, AS., (2017), Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile in infants in Oxfordshire, UK: Risk factors for colonization and carriage, and genetic overlap with regional C. difficile infection strains. PLoS One, 12(8), Article no. e0182307, United States, Public Library of Science, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182307.
  • Roshan, N., Riley, T., Hammer, K., (2017), Antimicrobial activity of natural products against Clostridium difficile in vitro. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 123(1), 92-103, United Kingdom, Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd, DOI: 10.1111/jam.13486.
  • Putsathit, P., Maneerattanaporn, M., Piewngam, P., Knight, DR., Kiratisin, P., Riley, T., (2017), Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated in Thailand. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 6(1), Article no. 58, United Kingdom, BioMed Central Ltd, DOI: 10.1186/s13756-017-0214-z.
  • Cairns, M., Preston, M., Hall, C., Gerding, D., Hawkey, P., Kato, H., Kim, H., Kuijper, E., Lawley, T., Pituch, H., Reid, S., Kullin, B., Riley, T., Solomon, K., Tsai, P., Weese, J., Stabler, R., Wren, B., (2017), Comparative genome analysis and global phylogeny of the toxin variant Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 017 reveals the evolution of two independent sublineages. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 55(3), 865-876, Washington, USA, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01296-16.
  • Chen, Y., Glass, K., Liu, B., Riley, T., Korda, R., Kirk, M., (2017), A population-based longitudinal study of Clostridium difficile infection-related hospitalization in mid-age and older Australians. Epidemiology and Infection, 145(3), 575-582, DOI: 10.1017/S0950268816002260.
  • McGovern, AM., Androga, GO., Knight, DR., Watson, MW., Elliott, B., Foster, NF., Chang, BJ., Riley, T., (2017), Prevalence of binary toxin positive Clostridium difficile in diarrhoeal humans in the absence of epidemic ribotype 027. PLoS One, 12(11), article no. e0187658, California, USA, Public Library of Science, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187658.
  • Collins, D., Putsathit, P., Elliott, B., Riley, T., (2017), Laboratory-based surveillance of Clostridium difficile strains circulating in the Australian healthcare setting in 2012. Pathology, 49(3), 309-13, DOI: 10.1016/j.pathol.2016.10.013.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Clements, A., Foster, N., Huber, C., Song, S., Harris-Brown, T., Yakob, L., Paterson, D., Riley, T., (2017), Asymptomatic Clostridium difficile colonization in two Australian tertiary hospitals, 2012-2014: prospective, repeated cross-sectional study. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 23(1), 48.e1-48.e7, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.cmi.2016.08.030.
  • Chen, Y., Glass, K., Liu, B., Korda, R., Riley, T., Kirk, M., (2017), Burden of Clostridium difficile infection: Associated hospitalization in a cohort of middle-aged and older adults. American Journal of Infection Control, 45(5), 508-511, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2016.12.006.
  • Putsathit, P., Maneerattanaporn, M., Piewngam, P., Kiratisin, P., Riley, T., (2017), Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in Thailand. New Microbes and New Infections, 15(n/a), 27-32, DOI: 10.1016/j.nmni.2016.10.004.
  • Moono, P., Lim, SC., Riley, T., (2017), High prevalence of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in public space lawns in Western Australia. Scientific Reports, 7(1 Feb. 2017), Article number 41196, Nature, DOI: 10.1038/srep41196.
  • Cheong, E., Roberts, T., Rattanavong, S., Riley, T., Newton, P., Dance, D., (2017), Clostridium difficile infection in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic: first isolationand review of the literature. BMC Infectious Diseases, 17(September), Article No. 635, London, United Kingdom, BioMed Central Ltd, DOI: 10.1186/s12879-017-2737-6.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Suhail, AR., Paterson, D., Helms, S., Yakob, L., McKenzie, S., Garborg, K., Emanuelsson, F., Stollman, N., Kronman, M., Clark, J., Huber, C., Riley, T., Clements, A., (2017), Upper Versus Lower Gastrointestinal Delivery for Transplantation of Fecal Microbiota in Recurrent or Refractory Clostridium difficile Infection. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 51(2), 145-150, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, DOI: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000511.
  • Mitchell, B., Farrington, A., Allen, M., Gardner, A., Hall, L., Barnett, A., Halton, K., Page, K., Dancer, S., Riley, T., Gericke, C., Paterson, D., Graves, N., (2017), Variation in hospital cleaning practice and process in Australian hospitals: A structured mapping exercise. Infection, Disease and Health, 22(4), 195-202, Netherlands, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.idh.2017.08.001.
  • Malhi, H., Tu, J., Riley, T., Kumarasinghe, S., Hammer, K., (2017), Tea tree oil gel for mild to moderate acne; a 12 week uncontrolled, open-label phase II pilot study. Australasian Journal of Dermatology, 58(3), 205-210, Australia, Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia, DOI: 10.1111/ajd.12465.
  • Collins, D., Selvey, L., Celenza, A., Riley, T., (2017), Community-associated Clostridium difficile infection in emergency department patients in Western Australia. Anaerobe, 48(August 2017), 121-125, London, United Kingdom, Academic Press, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.08.008.
  • Zainul, NH., Ma, ZF., Besari, A., Hassan, SA., Rahman, RA., Collins, D., Hamid, N., Riley, T., Lee, YY., (2017), Prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection and colonization in a tertiary hospital and elderly community of North-Eastern Peninsular Malaysia. Epidemiology and Infection, 145(14), 3012-3019, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press, DOI: 10.1017/S0950268817002011.
  • Elliott, B., Androga, G., Knight, DR., Riley, T., (2017), Clostridium difficile infection: Evolution, phylogeny and molecular epidemiology. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 49(1), 1-11, Netherlands, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2016.12.018.
  • Collins, D., Gasem, MH., Habibie, TH., Arinton, IG., Hendriyanto, P., Hartana, AP., Riley, T., (2017), Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in Indonesia. New Microbes and New Infections, 18(July 2017), 34-37, Bromley, United Kingdom, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.nmni.2017.04.006.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Riley, T., Paterson, D., Foster, N., Huber, C., Hong, S., Harris-Brown, T., Robson, J., Clements, A., (2017), Comparison of Clostridium difficile Ribotypes Circulating in Australian Hospitals and Communities. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 55(1), 216-225, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01779-16.
  • Moono, P., Foster, N., Hampson, D., Knight, D., Bloomfield, L., Riley, T., (2016), Clostridium difficile Infection in Production Animals and Avian Species: A Review. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, 13(12), 647-655, Mary Ann Liebert, DOI: 10.1089/fpd.2016.2181.
  • Bloomfield, L., Riley, T., (2016), Epidemiology and risk factors for community-associated Clostridium difficile infection: A narrative review. Infectious diseases and therapy, 5(3), 231-251, DOI: 10.1007/s40121-016-0117-y.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Yakob, L., Riley, T., Paterson, D., Baker, P., McKenzie, S., Robson, J., Clements, A., (2016), Community-Acquired Clostridium difficile Infection, Queensland, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(9), 1659-1661, DOI: 10.3201/eid2209.151115.
  • Hall, L., Farrington, A., Mitchell, B., Barnett, A., Halton , K., Allen, M., Page, K., Gardner, A., Havers, S., Bailey, E., Dancer, S., Riley, T., Gericke, C., Paterson, D., Graves, N., (2016), Researching effective approaches to cleaning in hospitals: protocol of the REACH study, a multi-site stepped-wedge randomised trial. Implementation Science, 11(1), Article no. 44, BioMed Central Ltd., DOI: 10.1186/s13012-016-0406-6.
  • Selvey, L., Slimings, C., Joske, D., Riley, T., (2016), Clostridium difficile infections amongst patients with haematological malignancies: A data linkage study. PLoS One, 11(6), e0157839, Public Library of Science, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0157839.
  • Trubiano, J., Cheng, A., Korman, T., Roder, C., Campbell, A., May, M., Blyth, C., Ferguson, J., Blackmore, T., Riley, T., Athan, E., (2016), Australasian Society of Infectious Diseases updated guidelines for the management of Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children in Australia and New Zealand. Internal Medicine Journal, 46(4), 479-493, Blackwell Publishing, DOI: 10.1111/imj.13027.
  • Cheng, AC., Collins, D., Elliott, B., Ferguson, JK., Paterson, DL., Thean, S., Riley, T., (2016), Laboratory-based surveillance of Clostridium difficile circulating in Australia, September – November 2010. Pathology, 48(3), 257-260, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.pathol.2016.02.005.
  • Knight, DR., Putsathit, P., Elliott, B., Riley, T., (2016), Contamination of Australian newborn calf carcasses at slaughter with Clostridium difficile. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 22(3), 266.e1-266.e7, Oxford, UK, Elsevier Ltd, DOI: 10.1016/j.cmi.2015.11.017.
  • Knight, D., Riley, T., (2016), Clostridium difficile clade 5 in Australia: Antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of PCR ribotypes of human and animal origin. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 71(8), 2213-2217, DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkw124.
  • Knight, D., Androga, G., Ballard, S., Howden, B., Riley, T., (2016), A Phenotypically Silent vanB2 Operon Carried on a Tn1549-Like Element in Clostridium difficile. mSphere, 1(4), article no. e00177-16, DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00177-16.
  • Lim, S., Foster, N., Riley, T., (2016), Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite. Anaerobe, 37(1), 67-71, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2015.12.004.
  • Moono, P., Putsathit, P., Knight, D., Squire, M., Hampson, D., Foster, N., Riley, T., (2016), Persistence of Clostridium difficile RT 237 infection in a Western Australian piggery. Anaerobe, 37(01), 62-66, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2015.11.012.
  • Collins, D., Riley, T., (2016), Routine detection of Clostridium difficile in Western Australia. Anaerobe, 37(2016), 34-37, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2015.11.007.
  • Carson, K., Riley, T., (2016), Comparison of the Vidas C. difficile and Quik Chek-60 glutamate dehydrogenase assays for the detection of Clostridium difficile in faecal samples. Pathology, 48(5), 506-508, Elsevier B.V., DOI: 10.1016/j.pathol.2016.04.007.
  • Dunne, E., Carville, K., Riley, T., Bowman, J., Leach, A., Cripps, A., Murphy, D., Jacoby, P., Lehmann, D., (2016), Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in Western Australia carry different serotypes of pneumococci with different antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Pneumonia, 8(15), 9p., BioMed Central, DOI: 10.1186/s41479-016-0015-9.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., McKenzie, S., Yakob, L., Clark, J., Paterson, D., Riley, T., Clements, A., (2015), Clostridium difficile infection seasonality: Patterns across hemispheres and continents – A systematic review. PLoS One, 10(3), Article no. e0120730, Public Library of Science, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120730.
  • Yakob, L., Riley, T., Paterson, D., Marquess, J., Magalhaes, R., Furuya-Kanamori, L., Clements, A., (2015), Mechanisms of hypervirulent Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 displacement of endemic strains: An epidemiological model. Scientific Reports, 5(2015), Article no. 12666, Nature Publishing Group, DOI: 10.1038/srep12666.
  • Wales, S., Hammer, K., King, AM., Tague, A., Lyras, D., Riley, T., Keller, P., Pyne, S., (2015), Binaphthyl-1,2,3-triazole peptidomimetics with activity against Clostridium difficile and other pathogenic bacteria. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 13(20), 5743-5756, Royal Society of Chemistry, DOI: 10.1039/c5ob00576k.
  • Wales, S., Hammer, K., Somphol, K., Kemker, I., Schroder, D., Tague, A., Brkic, Z., King, A., Lyras, D., Riley, T., Bremner, J., Keller, P., Pyne, S., (2015), Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of binaphthyl-based, functionalized oxazole and thiazole peptidomimetics. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 13(44), 10813-10824, Royal Society of Chemistry, DOI: 10.1039/c5ob01638j.
  • Ngamskulrungroj, P., Sanmee, S., Pusathit, P., Piewngam, P., Elliott, B., Riley, T., Kiratisin, P., (2015), Molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in a large teaching hospital in Thailand. PLoS One, 10(5), Article number e0127026, United States, Public Library of Science, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127026.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Marquess, J., Yakob, L., Riley, T., Paterson, D., Foster, N., Huber, C., Clements, A., (2015), Asymptomatic Clostridium difficile colonization: epidemiology and clinical implications. BMC Infectious Diseases, 15(1), Article no. 516, BioMed Central Ltd., DOI: 10.1186/s12879-015-1258-4.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Stone, J., Clark, J., McKenzie, S., Yakob, L., Paterson, D., Riley, T., Doi, S., Clements, A., (2015), Comorbidities, exposure to medications, and the risk of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 36(2), 132-141, University of Chicago Press, DOI: 10.1017/ice.2014.39.
  • Mori, N., Yoshizawa, S., Saga, T., Ishii, Y., Murakami, H., Iwata, M., Collins, D., Riley, T., Tateda, K., (2015), Incorrect diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection in a university hospital in Japan. J Infect Chemother, 21(10), 718-22, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.jiac.2015.06.009.
  • Chong, R., Shinwari, M., Amigh, M., Aravena-Roman, M., Riley, T., (2015), First report of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae-associated septicaemia and histologic changes in cultured Australian eels, Anguilla reinhardtii (Steindachner, 1867) and A. australis (Richardson, 1841). Journal of Fish Diseases, 38(9), 837-847, Blackwell, DOI: 10.1111/jfd.12293.
  • Putsathit, P., Morgan, J., Bradford, D., Engelhardt, N., Riley, T., (2015), Evaluation of the BD Max Cdiff assay for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in human stool specimens. Pathology, 47(2), 165-168, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, DOI: 10.1097/PAT.0000000000000214.
  • Putsathit, P., Kiratisin, P., Ngamwongsatit, P., Riley, T., (2015), Clostridium difficile infection in Thailand. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 45(1), 1-7, Amsterdam, Netherlands, Elsevier BV, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2014.09.005.
  • Knight, D., Hart, J., Gottardo, N., Eyre, D., Crook, D., Riley, T., (2015), Two cases of Clostridium difficile infection in unrelated oncology patients attributable to a single clone of C. difficile PCR ribotype 126. JMM Case Reports, Online(Online), 5p., London, UK, The Microbiology Society, DOI: 10.1099/jmmcr.0.000043.
  • Knight, D., Giglio, S., Huntington, P., Korman, T., Kotsanas, D., Moore, C., Paterson, D., Prendergast, L., Huber, C., Robson, J., Waring, L., Wehrhahn, M., Weldhagen, G., Wilson, R., Riley, T., (2015), Surveillance for antimicrobial resistance in Australian isolates of Clostridium difficile, 2013–14. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 70(11), 2992-2999, Oxford University Press, DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkv220.
  • Knight, D., Squire, M., Riley, T., (2015), Nationwide surveillance study of Clostridium difficile in Australian neonatal pigs shows high prevalence and heterogeneity of PCR ribotypes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 81(1), 119-123, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/AEM.03032-14.
  • Jennepalli, S., Hammer, K., Riley, T., Pyne, S., Keller, P., (2015), Synthesis of mono and bis[60]fullerene-based dicationic peptoids. European Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2015(1), 195-201, Wiley-VCH Verlag, DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201403046.
  • Collins, D., Elliott, B., Riley, T., (2015), Molecular methods for detecting and typing of Clostridium difficile. Pathology, 47(3), 211-218, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, DOI: 10.1097/PAT.0000000000000238.
  • Mackin, KE., Elliott, B., Kotsanas, D., Howden, BP., Carter, GP., Korman, TM., Riley, T., Rood, JI., Jenkin, GA., Lyras, D., (2015), Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Clostridium difficile clinical isolates from Victoria, Australia. Anaerobe, 34(1), 80-83, Academic Press, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2015.05.001.
  • Knight, DR., Elliott, B., Chang, BJ., Perkins, TT., Riley, T., (2015), Diversity and Evolution in the Genome of Clostridium difficile. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 28(3), 721-741, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/CMR.00127-14.
  • Eyre, DW., Tracey, L., Elliott, B., Slimings, C., Huntington, PG., Stuart, RL., Korman, TM., Kotsiou, G., McCann, R., Griffiths, D., Fawley, WN., Armstrong, P., Dingle, KE., Walker, AS., Peto, TE., Crook, DW., Wilcox, MH., Riley, T., (2015), Emergence and spread of predominantly community-onset Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 244 infection in Australia, 2010 to 2012. Euro Surveillance, 20(10), 21059, Sweden, Eurosurveillance, DOI: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES2015.20.10.21059.
  • Androga, G., Hart, J., Foster, N., Charles, A., Forbes, D., Riley, T., (2015), Infection with toxin a-negative, toxin b-negative, binary toxin-positive clostridium difficile in a young patient with ulcerative colitis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 53(11), 3702-3704, Washington, USA, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01810-15.
  • Androga, G., McGovern, A., Elliott, B., Chang, B., Perkins, T., Foster, N., Riley, T., (2015), Evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert C. difficile/Epi and Meridian Bioscience illumigene C. difficile Assays for Detecting Clostridium difficile Ribotype 033 Strains. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 53(3), 973-975, Washington, USA, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.03297-14.
  • Tracey, L., Kirke, A., Armstrong, P., Riley, T., (2015), From the hospital to the home – The rise and rise of Clostridium difficile infection. Australian Family Physician, 44(10), 712-717, South Melbourne, Victoria, The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Wangdi, K., Yakob, L., McKenzie, S., Doi, S., Clark, J., Paterson, D., Riley, T., Clements, A., (2015), 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 41(5), 890-895, Sage, DOI: 10.1177/0148607115623457.
  • Hart , J., Putsathit, P., Knight, D., Sammels, L., Riley, T., Keil, A., (2014), Clostridium difficile infection diagnosis in a paediatric population: comparison of methodologies. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: an international journal on pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases, 33(9), 1555-1564, Springer Verlag, DOI: 10.1007/s10096-014-2108-9.
  • Slimings, C., Armstrong, P., Beckingham, WD., Bull, AL., Hall, L., Kennedy, K., Marquess, J., McCann, R., Menzies, A., Mitchell, BG., Richards, MJ., Smollen, PC., Tracey, L., Wilkinson, IJ., Wilson, FL., Worth, LJ., Riley, T., (2014), Increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infection, Australia, 2011-2012. Medical Journal of Australia, 200(5), 272-276, Australia, Australasian Medical Publishing Co. Ltd, DOI: 10.5694/mja13.11153.
  • Aravena-Roman, M., Inglis, T., Riley, T., Chang, B., (2014), Distribution of 13 virulence genes among clinical and environmental Aeromonas spp. in Western Australia. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: an international journal on pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases, 33(11), 1889-1895, Springer Verlag, DOI: 10.1007/s10096-014-2157-0.
  • Elliott, B., Dingle, K., Didelot, X., Crook, DW., Riley, T., (2014), The complexity and diversity of the pathogenicity locus in Clostridium difficile clade 5. Genome Biology and Evolution, 6(12), 3159-3170, Oxford University Press, DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evu248.
  • Dingle, K., Elliott, B., Robinson, E., Griffiths, D., Eyre, D., Stoesser, N., Vaughan, A., Golubchik, T., Fawley, WN., Wilcox, MH., Peto, TE., Walker, AS., Riley, T., Crook, DW., Didelot, X., (2014), Evolutionary history of the Clostridium difficile pathogenicity locus. Genome Biology and Evolution, 6(1), 36-52, Oxford University Press, DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evt204.
  • Knight, D., Squire, M., Riley, T., (2014), Laboratory detection of Clostridium difficile in piglets in Australia. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 52(11), 3856-3862, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01225-14.
  • Lee, J., Lee, Y., Lee, K., Riley, T., Kim, H., (2014), The changes of PCR ribotype and antimicrobial resistance of Clostridium difficile in a tertiary care hospital over 10 years. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 63(6), 819-823, Society for General Microbiology, DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.072082-0.
  • Manzo, C., Merrigan, M., Johnson, S., Gerding, D., Riley, T., Silva, J., Brazier, J., Tang-Feldman, Y., Delmee, M., Wilks, M., Mulligan, M., (2014), International typing study of Clostridium difficile. Anaerobe, 28(2014), 4-7, Academic Press, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2014.04.005.
  • Pickering, J., Smith-Vaughan, H., Beissbarth, J., Bowman, M., Wiertsema, S., Riley, T., Leach, A., Richmond, P., Lehmann, D., Kirkham, L., (2014), Diversity of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Strains Colonizing Australian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 52(5), 1352-1357, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.03448-13.
  • Huber, C., Hall, L., Foster, N., Gray, M., Allen, M., Richardson , L., Robson, J., Vohra, R., Schlebusch, S., George, N., Nimmo, G., Riley, T., Paterson, D., (2014), Surveillance snapshot of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitals across Queensland detects binary toxin producingribotype UK 244. Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 38(4), E279-E284.
  • Tan, XQ., Verrall, AJ., Jureen, R., Riley, T., Collins, D., Lin, RT., Balm, MN., Chan, D., Tambyah, PA., (2014), The emergence of community-onset Clostridium difficile infection in a tertiary hospital in Singapore: A cause for concern. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 43(1), 47-51, Elsevier BV, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2013.09.011.
  • Foster, N., Collins, D., Ditchburn, S., Duncan, C., Van Schalkwyk, J., Golledge, C., Keed, A., Riley, T., (2014), Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in two tertiary-care hospitals in Perth, Western Australia: a cross-sectional study. New Microbes and New Infections, 2(3), 64-71, Elsevier Ltd, DOI: 10.1002/nmi2.43.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Robson, J., Soares Magalhaes, R., Yakob, L., McKenzie, S., Paterson, D., Riley, T., Clements, A., (2014), A population-based spatio-temporal analysis of Clostridium difficile infection in Queensland, Australia over a 10-year period. Journal of Infection, 69(5), 447-455, W.B. Saunders Ltd, DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2014.06.014.
  • Lim, SK., Stuart, RL., Mackin, KE., Carter, GP., Kotsanas, D., Francis, MJ., Easton, M., Dimovski, K., Elliott, B., Riley, T., Hogg, G., Paul, E., Korman, T., Seemann, T., Stinear, TP., Lyras, D., Jenkin, GA., (2014), Emergence of a ribotype 244 strain of clostridium difficile associated with severe disease and related to the epidemic ribotype 027 strain. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 58(15 June), 1723-1730, Cary, USA, Oxford University Press, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciu203.
  • Slimings, C., Riley, T., (2014), Antibiotics and hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection: update of systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 69(4), 881-891, Oxon, UK, Oxford University Press, DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkt477.
  • Yakob, L., Riley, T., Paterson, D., Marquess, J., Clements, A., (2014), Assessing control bundles for Clostridium difficile: a review and mathematical model. Emerging Microbes and Infections, 3(2014), Article no. e43, Nature Publishing Group, DOI: 10.1038/emi.2014.43.
  • Collins, D., Hawkey, P., Riley, T., (2013), Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in Asia. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 2(1), Article number 21, United Kingdom, BioMed Central Ltd., DOI: 10.1186/2047-2994-2-21.
  • Goh, S., Hussain, H., Chang, B., Emmett, W., Riley, T., Mullany, P., (2013), Phage C2 mediates transduction of Tn6215, encoding erythromycin resistance, between Clostridium difficile strains. mBio, 4(6), Article no. e00840-13, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00840-13.
  • Carson, K., Boseiwaqa, L., Thean, S., Foster, N., Riley, T., (2013), Isolation of Clostridium difficile from faecal specimens – a comparison of chromID C. difficile agar and cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 62(2013), 1423-1427, United Kingdom, The Microbiology Society, DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.056515-0.
  • Boulos, R., Man, N., Lengkeek, N., Hammer, K., Foster, N., Stemberger, N., Skelton, B., Wong, PY., Martinac, B., Riley, T., McKinley, A., Stewart, S., (2013), Inspiration from Old Dyes: Tris(stilbene) compounds as potent gram-positive antibacterial agents. Chemistry: A European Journal, 19(52), 17980-17988, Wiley, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201303119.
  • Aravena-Roman, M., Beaz-Hidalgo, R., Inglis, T., Riley, T., Martinez-Murcia, A., Chang, B., Figueras, M., (2013), Aeromonas australiensis sp. nov., isolated from irrigation water. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 63(PART 6), 2270-2276, United Kingdom, The Microbiology Society, DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.040162-0.
  • Knight, D., Riley, T., (2013), Prevalence of gastrointestinal clostridium difficile carriage in Australian sheep and lambs. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79(18), 5689-5692, DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01888-13.
  • He, M., Miyajima, F., Roberts, P., Ellison, L., Pickard, D., Martin, M., Connor, T., Harris, S., Fairley, D., Bamford, K., D'arc, S., Brazier, J., Brown, D., Coia, J., Douce, G., Gerding, D., Kim, H., Koh, T., Kato, H., Senoh, M., Louie, T., Michell, S., Butt, E., Peacock, S., Brown, N., Riley, T., Songer, G., Wilcox, M., Pirmohamed, M., Kuijper, E., Hawkey, P., Wren, B., Dougan, G., Parkhill, J., Lawley, T., (2013), Emergence and global spread of epidemic healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile. Nature Genetics, 45(1), 109-113, New York, USA, Nature Publishing Group, DOI: 10.1038/ng.2478.
  • Friedman, N., Pollard, J., Stupart, D., Knight, D., Khajehnoori, M., Davey, E., Parry, L., Riley, T., (2013), Prevalence of Clostridium difficile colonization among healthcare workers. BMC Infectious Diseases, 13(1), Article no. 459, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-459.
  • Knight, D., Thean, S., Putsathit, P., Fenwick, S., Riley, T., (2013), Cross-Sectional Study Reveals High Prevalence of Clostridium difficile Non-PCR Ribotype 078 Strains in Australian Veal Calves at Slaughter. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79(8), 2630-2635, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/AEM.03951-12.
  • Squire, MM., Carter, GP., Mackin, KE., Chakravorty, A., Noren, T., Elliott, B., Lyras, D., Riley, T., (2013), Novel molecular type of clostridium difficile in neonatal pigs, Western Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(5), 790-792, Atlanta, USA, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, DOI: 10.3201/eid1905.121062.
  • Boseiwaqa, L., Foster, N., Thean, S., Squire, M., Riley, T., Carson, K., (2013), Comparison of ChromID C. difficile agar and cycloserine-cefoxitinfructose agar for the recovery of Clostridium difficile. Pathology, 45(5), 495-500, United Kingdom, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, DOI: 10.1097/PAT.0b013e3283632680.
  • Blackwood, B., Thompson, G., McMullan, R., Stevenson, M., Riley, T., Alderdice, F., Trinder, TJ., Lavery, G., McAuley, D., (2013), Tea tree oil (5%) body wash versus standard care (Johnson’s Baby Softwash) to prevent colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in critically ill adults: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 68(5), 1193-1199, United Kingdom, Oxford University Press, DOI: 10.1093/jac/dks501.
  • Squire, M., Riley, T., (2013), Clostridium difficile infection in humans and piglets: a ‘one health’ opportunity. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 365(2013), 299-314, Springer, DOI: 10.1007/82_2012_237.
  • Thomsen, N., Hammer, K., Riley, T., Belkum, A., Carson, C., (2013), Effect of habituation to tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil on the subsequent susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. to antimicrobials, triclosan, tea tree oil, terpinen-4-ol and carvacrol. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 41(4), 343-351, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2012.12.011.
  • Yakob, L., Riley, T., Paterson, D., Clements, A., (2013), Clostridium difficile exposure as an insidious source of infection in healthcare settings: An epidemiological model. BMC Infectious Diseases, 13(1), Article Number 376, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-376.
  • Duncan, C., Riley, T., Carson, K., Budgeon, C., Siffleet, J., (2013), The effect of an acidic cleanser versus soap on the skin pH and micro-flora of adult patients:A non-randomised two group crossover study in an intensive care unit. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 29(5), 291-296, United Kingdom, Churchill Livingstone, DOI: 10.1016/j.iccn.2013.03.005.
  • Vaughan-Higgins, R., Bradfield, K., Friend, JA., Riley, T., Vitali, SD., (2013), Erysipelas in a numbat (myrmecobius fasciatus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 44(1), 208-211, Florida, United States, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, DOI: 10.1638/1042-7260-44.1.208.
  • De Almeida, M., Heffernan, H., Dervan, A., Bakker, S., Freeman, J., Bhally, H., Taylor, S., Riley, T., Roberts, S., (2013), Severe Clostridium difficile infection in New Zealand associated with an emerging strain, PCR-ribotype 244. New Zealand Medical Journal, 126(1380), 9-14, New Zealand, New Zealand Medical Association.
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