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Professor Tom Riley


  • Doctor of Philosophy, The University of Western Australia, 1985.


Recent Research Grants

  • Clostridium difficile infection in Western Australian (WA) adults with cystic fibrosis ? disease burden, molecular epidemiology, clinical impact and the potential correlation with the gut microbiome,  Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital,  Research Advisory Committee Funding Grant 2017/18,  2017 - 2018,  $40,000.
  • Hydrosol ointment/cream for the elimination of Staphylococcus aureus (`golden staph?) nasal carriage,  Kayban Pty Ltd,  Grant,  2016 - 2017,  $49,820.
  • Investigating Clostridium difficile infection in Western Australia using linked data,  Merck Sharp & Dohme Corporation (US),  Grant,  2016 - 2017,  $138,842.
  • Evaluation of the ?new? Cepheid Xpert C. difficile BT assay for the laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile disease,  Cepheid,  Grant,  2016 - 2017,  $41,234.

Recent Publications (within the last five years)

Journal Articles

  • Cheong, E., Roberts, T., Rattanavong, S., Riley, T., Newton, P., Dance, D., (2017), Clostridium difficile infection in the Lao People?s Democratic Republic: first isolationand review of the literature. BMC Infectious Diseases, 17(635), 6p., United Kingdom, BioMed Central Ltd, DOI: 10.1186/s12879-017-2737-6.
  • Chen, Y., Glass, K., Liu, B., Korda, R., Riley, T., Kirk, M., (2017), Burden of Clostridium difficile infection: Associated hospitalization in a cohort of middle-aged and older adults. American Journal of Infection Control, epub ahead of print(Jan 13), 4p., Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2016.12.006.
  • Putsathit, P., Maneerattanaporn, M., Piewngam, P., Kiratisin, P., Riley, T., (2017), Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in Thailand. New Microbes and New Infections, 15(C), 27-32.
  • Collins, D., Gasem, MH., Habibie, TH., Arinton, I., Hendriyanto, P., Hartana, AP., Riley, T., (2017), Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in Indonesia. New Microbes and New Infections, 18, , 34-37, DOI:
  • Collins, D., Putsathit, P., Elliott, B., Riley, T., (2017), Laboratory-based surveillance of Clostridium difficile strains circulating in the Australian healthcare setting in 2012. Pathology, 49(3), 309-13, DOI: 10.1016/j.pathol.2016.10.013.
  • Engelhardt, N., Foster, N., Hong, S., Riley, T., McGechie, D., (2017), Comparison of two environmental sampling tools for the detection of Clostridium difficile spores onhard bathroom surfaces in the hospital setting. Journal of Hospital Infection, 96(3), 295-303, United Kingdom, W.B Saunders Co Ltd, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhin.2017.03.028.
  • Stoesser, N., Eyre, D., Quan, T., Godwin, H., Pill, G., Mbuvi, E., Vaughan, A., Griffiths, D., Martin, J., Fawley, W., Dingle, K., Oakley, S., Wanelik, K., Finney, J., Kachrimanidou, M., Moore, C., Gorbach, S., Riley, T., Crook, D., Peto, T., Wilcox, M., Walker, A., (2017), Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile in infants in Oxfordshire, UK: Risk factors for colonization and carriage, and genetic overlap with regional C. difficile infection strains. PLoS One, 12(8), e0182307, United States, Public Library of Science, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182307.
  • Roshan, N., Riley, T., Hammer, K., (2017), Antimicrobial activity of natural products against Clostridium difficile in vitro. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 123(1), 92-103, United Kingdom, Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd, DOI: 10.1111/jam.13486.
  • Putsathit, P., Maneerattanaporn, M., Piewngam, P., Knight, D., Kiratisin, P., Riley, T., (2017), Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated in Thailand. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 6(1), Article number 58, United Kingdom, BioMed Central Ltd, DOI: 10.1186/s13756-017-0214-z.
  • Cairns, M., Preston, M., Hall, C., Gerding, D., Hawkey, P., Kato, H., Kim, H., Kuijper, E., Lawley, T., Pituch, H., Reid, S., Kullin, B., Riley, T., Solomon, K., Tsai, P., Weese, J., Stabler, R., Wren, B., (2017), Comparative genome analysis and global phylogeny of the toxin variant Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 017 reveals the evolution of two independent sublineages. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 55(3), 865-876, United States, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01296-16.
  • Moono, P., Lim, SC., Riley, T., (2017), High prevalence of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in public space lawns in Western Australia. Scientific Reports, 7(1 Feb), 7p., Nature, DOI: 10.1038/srep41196.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Clements, A., Foster, N., Huber, C., Song, S., Harris-Brown, T., Yakob, L., Paterson, D., Riley, T., (2017), Asymptomatic Clostridium difficile colonization in two Australian tertiary hospitals, 2012e2014: prospective, repeated cross-sectional study. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 23(n/a), 48.e1-48.e7, Elsevier.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Suhail, AR., Paterson, D., Helms, S., Yakob, L., McKenzie, S., Garborg, K., Emanuelsson, F., Stollman, N., Kronman, M., Clark, J., Huber, C., Riley, T., Clements, A., (2017), Upper Versus Lower Gastrointestinal Delivery for Transplantation of Fecal Microbiota in Recurrent or Refractory Clostridium difficile Infection. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 51(2), 145-150, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, DOI: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000511.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Riley, T., Paterson, D., Foster, N., Huber, C., Hong, S., Harris-Brown, T., Robson, J., Clements, A., (2017), Comparison of Clostridium difficile Ribotypes Circulating in Australian Hospitals and Communities. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 55(1), 216-225, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01779-16.
  • Knight, DR., Squire, MM., Collins, D., Riley, T., (2017), Genome Analysis of Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotype 014 Lineage in Australian Pigs and Humans Reveals a Diverse Genetic Repertoire and Signatures of Long-Range Interspecies Transmission. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7(2138), 48, DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.02138.
  • Zainul, NH., Ma, ZF., Besari, A., Hassan, SA., Rahman, RA., Collins, D., Riley, T., Hamid, N., Lee, YY., (2017), Prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection and colonization in a tertiary hospital and elderly community of North-Eastern Peninsular Malaysia. Epidemiology and Infection, 1-8, DOI:
  • Collins, D., Selvey, L., Celenza, A., Riley, T., (2017), Community-associated Clostridium difficile infection in emergency department patients in Western Australia. Anaerobe, 48, , 121-125, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.08.008.
  • Lim, S., Foster, N., Riley, T., (2016), Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite. Anaerobe, 37(1), 67-71, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2015.12.004.
  • Hall, L., Farrington, A., Mitchell, B., Barnett, A., Halton , K., Allen, M., Page, K., Gardner, A., Havers, S., Bailey, E., Dancer, S., Riley, T., Gericke, C., Paterson, D., Graves, N., (2016), Researching effective approaches to cleaning in hospitals: protocol of the REACH study, a multi-site stepped-wedge randomised trial. Implementation Science, 11(1), Article no. 44, BioMed Central Ltd., DOI: 10.1186/s13012-016-0406-6.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Yakob, L., Riley, T., Paterson, D., Baker, P., McKenzie, S., Robson, J., Clements, A., (2016), Community-Acquired Clostridium difficile Infection, Queensland, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(9), 1659-1661, DOI: 10.3201/eid2209.151115.
  • Chen, Y., Glass, K., Liu, B., Riley, T., Korda, R., Kirk, M., (2016), A population-based longitudinal study of Clostridium difficile infection-related hospitalization in mid-age and older Australians. Epidemiology and Infection, 145(3), 575-582, DOI: 10.1017/S0950268816002260.
  • Moono, P., Foster, N., Hampson, D., Knight, D., Bloomfield, L., Riley, T., (2016), Clostridium difficile Infection in Production Animals and Avian Species: A Review. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, 13(12), 647-655, Mary Ann Liebert, DOI: 10.1089/fpd.2016.2181.
  • Dunne, E., Carville, K., Riley, T., Bowman, J., Leach, A., Cripps, A., Murphy, D., Jacoby, P., Lehmann, D., (2016), Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in Western Australia carry different serotypes of pneumococci with different antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Pneumonia, 8(15), 9p., BioMed Central, DOI: 10.1186/s41479-016-0015-9.
  • Knight, D., Androga, G., Ballard, S., Howden, B., Riley, T., (2016), A Phenotypically Silent vanB2 Operon Carried on a Tn1549-Like Element in Clostridium difficile. mSphere, 1(4), article no. e00177-16, DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00177-16.
  • Cheng, AC., Collins, D., Elliott, B., Ferguson, JK., Paterson, DL., Thean, S., Riley, T., (2016), Laboratory-based surveillance of Clostridium difficile circulating in Australia, September ? November 2010. Pathology, 48(3), 257-260, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.pathol.2016.02.005.
  • Knight, DR., Putsathit, P., Elliott, B., Riley, T., (2016), Contamination of Australian newborn calf carcasses at slaughter with Clostridium difficile. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 22(3), 266.e1-266.e7, Oxford, UK, Elsevier Ltd, DOI: 10.1016/j.cmi.2015.11.017.
  • Knight, D., Riley, T., (2016), Clostridium difficile clade 5 in Australia: Antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of PCR ribotypes of human and animal origin. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 71(8), 2213-2217, DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkw124.
  • Collins, D., Riley, T., (2016), Routine detection of Clostridium difficile in Western Australia. Anaerobe, 37(2016), 34-37, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2015.11.007.
  • Bloomfield, L., Riley, T., (2016), Epidemiology and risk factors for community-associated Clostridium difficile infection: A narrative review. Infectious Diseases and Therapy, 5(3), 231-251, Springer Healthcare, DOI: 10.1007/s40121-016-0117-y.
  • Carson, K., Riley, T., (2016), Comparison of the Vidas C. difficile and Quik Chek-60 glutamate dehydrogenase assays for the detection of Clostridium difficile in faecal samples. Pathology, 48(5), 506-508, Elsevier B.V., DOI: 10.1016/j.pathol.2016.04.007.
  • Selvey, L., Slimings, C., Joske, D., Riley, T., (2016), Clostridium difficile infections amongst patients with haematological malignancies: A data linkage study. PLoS One, 11(6), e0157839, Public Library of Science, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0157839.
  • Trubiano, J., Cheng, A., Korman, T., Roder, C., Campbell, A., May, M., Blyth, C., Ferguson, J., Blackmore, T., Riley, T., Athan, E., (2016), Australasian Society of Infectious Diseases updated guidelines for the management of Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children in Australia and New Zealand. Internal Medicine Journal, 46(4), 479-493, Blackwell Publishing, DOI: 10.1111/imj.13027.
  • Moono, P., Putsathit, P., Knight, D., Squire, M., Hampson, D., Foster, N., Riley, T., (2016), Persistence of Clostridium difficile RT 237 infection in a Western Australian piggery. Anaerobe, 37(01), 62-66, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2015.11.012.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., McKenzie, S., Yakob, L., Clark, J., Paterson, D., Riley, T., Clements, A., (2015), Clostridium difficile infection seasonality: Patterns across hemispheres and continents ? A systematic review. PLoS One, 10(3), Article no. e0120730, Public Library of Science, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120730.
  • Yakob, L., Riley, T., Paterson, D., Marquess, J., Magalhaes, R., Furuya-Kanamori, L., Clements, A., (2015), Mechanisms of hypervirulent Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 displacement of endemic strains: An epidemiological model. Scientific Reports, 5(2015), Article no. 12666, Nature Publishing Group, DOI: 10.1038/srep12666.
  • Wales, S., Hammer, K., King, AM., Tague, A., Lyras, D., Riley, T., Keller, P., Pyne, S., (2015), Binaphthyl-1,2,3-triazole peptidomimetics with activity against Clostridium difficile and other pathogenic bacteria. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 13(20), 5743-5756, Royal Society of Chemistry, DOI: 10.1039/c5ob00576k.
  • Wales, S., Hammer, K., Somphol, K., Kemker, I., Schroder, D., Tague, A., Brkic, Z., King, A., Lyras, D., Riley, T., Bremner, J., Keller, P., Pyne, S., (2015), Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of binaphthyl-based, functionalized oxazole and thiazole peptidomimetics. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 13(44), 10813-10824, Royal Society of Chemistry, DOI: 10.1039/c5ob01638j.
  • Mori, N., Yoshizawa, S., Saga, T., Ishii, Y., Murakami, H., Iwata, M., Collins, D., Riley, T., Tateda, K., (2015), Incorrect diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection in a university hospital in Japan. J Infect Chemother, 21(10), 718-22, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.jiac.2015.06.009.
  • Ngamskulrungroj, P., Sanmee, S., Pusathit, P., Piewngam, P., Elliott, B., Riley, T., Kiratisin, P., (2015), Molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in a large teaching hospital in Thailand. PLoS One, 10(5), Article number e0127026, United States, Public Library of Science, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127026.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Marquess, J., Yakob, L., Riley, T., Paterson, D., Foster, N., Huber, C., Clements, A., (2015), Asymptomatic Clostridium difficile colonization: epidemiology and clinical implications. BMC Infectious Diseases, 15(1), Article no. 516, BioMed Central Ltd., DOI: 10.1186/s12879-015-1258-4.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Stone, J., Clark, J., McKenzie, S., Yakob, L., Paterson, D., Riley, T., Doi, S., Clements, A., (2015), Comorbidities, exposure to medications, and the risk of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 36(2), 132-141, University of Chicago Press, DOI: 10.1017/ice.2014.39.
  • Chong, R., Shinwari, M., Amigh, M., Aravena-Roman, M., Riley, T., (2015), First report of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae-associated septicaemia and histologic changes in cultured Australian eels, Anguilla reinhardtii (Steindachner, 1867) and A. australis (Richardson, 1841). Journal of Fish Diseases, 38(9), 837-847, Blackwell, DOI: 10.1111/jfd.12293.
  • Putsathit, P., Morgan, J., Bradford, D., Engelhardt, N., Riley, T., (2015), Evaluation of the BD Max Cdiff assay for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in human stool specimens. Pathology, 47(2), 165-168, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, DOI: 10.1097/PAT.0000000000000214.
  • Knight, D., Giglio, S., Huntington, P., Korman, T., Kotsanas, D., Moore, C., Paterson, D., Prendergast, L., Huber, C., Robson, J., Waring, L., Wehrhahn, M., Weldhagen, G., Wilson, R., Riley, T., (2015), Surveillance for antimicrobial resistance in Australian isolates of Clostridium difficile, 2013?14. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 70(11), 2992-2999, Oxford University Press, DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkv220.
  • Knight, D., Squire, M., Riley, T., (2015), Nationwide surveillance study of Clostridium difficile in Australian neonatal pigs shows high prevalence and heterogeneity of PCR ribotypes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 81(1), 119-123, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/AEM.03032-14.
  • Jennepalli, S., Hammer, K., Riley, T., Pyne, S., Keller, P., (2015), Synthesis of mono and bis[60]fullerene-based dicationic peptoids. European Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2015(1), 195-201, Wiley-VCH Verlag, DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201403046.
  • Collins, D., Elliott, B., Riley, T., (2015), Molecular methods for detecting and typing of Clostridium difficile. Pathology, 47(3), 211-218, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, DOI: 10.1097/PAT.0000000000000238.
  • Mackin, KE., Elliott, B., Kotsanas, D., Howden, BP., Carter, GP., Korman, TM., Riley, T., Rood, JI., Jenkin, GA., Lyras, D., (2015), Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Clostridium difficile clinical isolates from Victoria, Australia. Anaerobe, 34(1), 80-83, Academic Press, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2015.05.001.
  • Knight, DR., Elliott, B., Chang, BJ., Perkins, TT., Riley, T., (2015), Diversity and Evolution in the Genome of Clostridium difficile. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 28(3), 721-741, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/CMR.00127-14.
  • Eyre, DW., Tracey, L., Elliott, B., Slimings, C., Huntington, PG., Stuart, RL., Korman, TM., Kotsiou, G., McCann, R., Griffiths, D., Fawley, WN., Armstrong, P., Dingle, KE., Walker, AS., Peto, TE., Crook, DW., Wilcox, MH., Riley, T., (2015), Emergence and spread of predominantly community-onset Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 244 infection in Australia, 2010 to 2012. Euro Surveillance, 20(10), 21059, Sweden, Eurosurveillance.
  • Androga, G., Hart, J., Foster, N., Charles, A., Forbes, D., Riley, T., (2015), Infection with toxin a-negative, toxin b-negative, binary toxin-positive clostridium difficile in a young patient with ulcerative colitis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 53(11), 3702-3704, Washington, USA, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01810-15.
  • Tracey, L., Kirke, A., Armstrong, P., Riley, T., (2015), From the hospital to the home ? The rise and rise of Clostridium difficile infection. Australian Family Physician, 44(10), 712-717, South Melbourne, Victoria, The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Wangdi, K., Yakob, L., McKenzie, S., Doi, S., Clark, J., Paterson, D., Riley, T., Clements, A., (2015), 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, article online(23 Dec 2015), 6p., Sage, DOI: 10.1177/0148607115623457.
  • Putsathit, P., Kiratisin, P., Ngamwongsatit, P., Riley, T., (2015), Clostridium difficile infection in Thailand. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 45(1), 1-7, Amsterdam, Netherlands, Elsevier BV, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2014.09.005.
  • Knight, D., Hart, J., Gottardo, N., Eyre, D., Crook, D., Riley, T., (2015), Two cases of Clostridium difficile infection in unrelated oncology patients attributable to a single clone of C. difficile PCR ribotype 126. JMM Case Reports, Online(Online), 5p., London, UK, The Microbiology Society, DOI: 10.1099/jmmcr.0.000043.
  • Androga, G., McGovern, A., Elliott, B., Chang, B., Perkins, T., Foster, N., Riley, T., (2015), Evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert C. difficile/Epi and Meridian Bioscience illumigene C. difficile Assays for Detecting Clostridium difficile Ribotype 033 Strains. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 53(3), 973-975, Washington, USA, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.03297-14.
  • Hart , J., Putsathit, P., Knight, D., Sammels, L., Riley, T., Keil, A., (2014), Clostridium difficile infection diagnosis in a paediatric population: comparison of methodologies. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: an international journal on pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases, 33(9), 1555-1564, Springer Verlag, DOI: 10.1007/s10096-014-2108-9.
  • Lee, J., Lee, Y., Lee, K., Riley, T., Kim, H., (2014), The changes of PCR ribotype and antimicrobial resistance of Clostridium difficile in a tertiary care hospital over 10 years. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 63(6), 819-823, Society for General Microbiology, DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.072082-0.
  • Aravena-Roman, M., Inglis, T., Riley, T., Chang, B., (2014), Distribution of 13 virulence genes among clinical and environmental Aeromonas spp. in Western Australia. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: an international journal on pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases, 33(11), 1889-1895, Springer Verlag, DOI: 10.1007/s10096-014-2157-0.
  • Elliott, B., Dingle, K., Didelot, X., Crook, DW., Riley, T., (2014), The complexity and diversity of the pathogenicity locus in Clostridium difficile clade 5. Genome Biology and Evolution, 6(12), 3159-3170, Oxford University Press, DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evu248.
  • Dingle, K., Elliott, B., Robinson, E., Griffiths, D., Eyre, D., Stoesser, N., Vaughan, A., Golubchik, T., Fawley, WN., Wilcox, MH., Peto, TE., Walker, AS., Riley, T., Crook, DW., Didelot, X., (2014), Evolutionary history of the Clostridium difficile pathogenicity locus. Genome Biology and Evolution, 6(1), 36-52, Oxford University Press, DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evt204.
  • Knight, D., Squire, M., Riley, T., (2014), Laboratory detection of Clostridium difficile in piglets in Australia. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 52(11), 3856-3862, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01225-14.
  • Pickering, J., Smith-Vaughan, H., Beissbarth, J., Bowman, M., Wiertsema, S., Riley, T., Leach, A., Richmond, P., Lehmann, D., Kirkham, L., (2014), Diversity of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Strains Colonizing Australian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 52(5), 1352-1357, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/JCM.03448-13.
  • Huber, C., Hall, L., Foster, N., Gray, M., Allen, M., Richardson , L., Robson, J., Vohra, R., Schlebusch, S., George, N., Nimmo, G., Riley, T., Paterson, D., (2014), Surveillance snapshot of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitals across Queensland detects binary toxin producingribotype UK 244. Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 38(4), E279-E284.
  • Tan, XQ., Verrall, AJ., Jureen, R., Riley, T., Collins, D., Lin, RT., Balm, MN., Chan, D., Tambyah, PA., (2014), The emergence of community-onset Clostridium difficile infection in a tertiary hospital in Singapore: A cause for concern. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 43(1), 47-51, Elsevier BV, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2013.09.011.
  • Foster, N., Collins, D., Ditchburn, S., Duncan, C., Van Schalkwyk, J., Golledge, C., Keed, A., Riley, T., (2014), Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in two tertiary-care hospitals in Perth, Western Australia: a cross-sectional study. New Microbes and New Infections, 2(3), 64-71, Elsevier Ltd, DOI: 10.1002/nmi2.43.
  • Furuya-Kanamori, L., Robson, J., Soares Magalhaes, R., Yakob, L., McKenzie, S., Paterson, D., Riley, T., Clements, A., (2014), A population-based spatio-temporal analysis of Clostridium difficile infection in Queensland, Australia over a 10-year period. Journal of Infection, 69(5), 447-455, W.B. Saunders Ltd, DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2014.06.014.
  • Lim, SK., Stuart, RL., Mackin, KE., Carter, GP., Kotsanas, D., Francis, MJ., Easton, M., Dimovski, K., Elliott, B., Riley, T., Hogg, G., Paul, E., Korman, T., Seemann, T., Stinear, TP., Lyras, D., Jenkin, GA., (2014), Emergence of a ribotype 244 strain of clostridium difficile associated with severe disease and related to the epidemic ribotype 027 strain. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 58(15 June), 1723-1730, Cary, USA, Oxford University Press, DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciu203.
  • Slimings, C., Riley, T., (2014), Antibiotics and hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection: update of systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 69(4), 881-891, Oxon, UK, Oxford University Press, DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkt477.
  • Yakob, L., Riley, T., Paterson, D., Marquess, J., Clements, A., (2014), Assessing control bundles for Clostridium difficile: a review and mathematical model. Emerging Microbes and Infections, 3(2014), Article no. e43, Nature Publishing Group, DOI: 10.1038/emi.2014.43.
  • Slimings, C., Armstrong, P., Beckingham, WD., Bull, AL., Hall, L., Kennedy, K., Marquess, J., McCann, R., Menzies, A., Mitchell, BG., Richards, MJ., Smollen, PC., Tracey, L., Wilkinson, IJ., Wilson, FL., Worth, LJ., Riley, T., (2014), Increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infection, Australia, 2011-2012. Medical Journal of Australia, 200(5), 272-276, Australia, Australasian Medical Publishing Co. Ltd, DOI: 10.5694/mja13.11153.
  • Manzo, C., Merrigan, M., Johnson, S., Gerding, D., Riley, T., Silva, J., Brazier, J., Tang-Feldman, Y., Delmee, M., Wilks, M., Mulligan, M., (2014), International typing study of Clostridium difficile. Anaerobe, 28(2014), 4-7, Academic Press, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2014.04.005.
  • Squire, MM., Carter, GP., Mackin, KE., Chakravorty, A., Noren, T., Elliott, B., Lyras, D., Riley, T., (2013), Novel molecular type of clostridium difficile in neonatal pigs, Western Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(5), 790-792, Atlanta, USA, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, DOI: 10.3201/eid1905.121062.
  • Goh, S., Hussain, H., Chang, B., Emmett, W., Riley, T., Mullany, P., (2013), Phage C2 mediates transduction of Tn6215, encoding erythromycin resistance, between Clostridium difficile strains. mBio, 4(6), Article no. e00840-13, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00840-13.
  • He, M., Miyajima, F., Roberts, P., Ellison, L., Pickard, D., Martin, M., Connor, T., Harris, S., Fairley, D., Bamford, K., D'arc, S., Brazier, J., Brown, D., Coia, J., Douce, G., Gerding, D., Kim, H., Koh, T., Kato, H., Senoh, M., Louie, T., Michell, S., Butt, E., Peacock, S., Brown, N., Riley, T., Songer, G., Wilcox, M., Pirmohamed, M., Kuijper, E., Hawkey, P., Wren, B., Dougan, G., Parkhill, J., Lawley, T., (2013), Emergence and global spread of epidemic healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile. Nature Genetics, 45(1), 109-113, New York, USA, Nature Publishing Group, DOI: 10.1038/ng.2478.
  • Yakob, L., Riley, T., Paterson, D., Clements, A., (2013), Clostridium difficile exposure as an insidious source of infection in healthcare settings: An epidemiological model. BMC Infectious Diseases, 13(1), Article Number 376, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-376.
  • Friedman, N., Pollard, J., Stupart, D., Knight, D., Khajehnoori, M., Davey, E., Parry, L., Riley, T., (2013), Prevalence of Clostridium difficile colonization among healthcare workers. BMC Infectious Diseases, 13(1), Article no. 459, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-459.
  • De Almeida, M., Heffernan, H., Dervan, A., Bakker, S., Freeman, J., Bhally, H., Taylor, S., Riley, T., Roberts, S., (2013), Severe Clostridium difficile infection in New Zealand associated with an emerging strain, PCR-ribotype 244. New Zealand Medical Journal, 126(1380), 9-14, New Zealand, New Zealand Medical Association.
  • Boseiwaqa, L., Foster, N., Thean, S., Squire, M., Riley, T., Carson, K., (2013), Comparison of ChromID C. difficile agar and cycloserine-cefoxitinfructose agar for the recovery of Clostridium difficile. Pathology, 45(5), 495-500, United Kingdom, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, DOI: 10.1097/PAT.0b013e3283632680.
  • Duncan, C., Riley, T., Carson, K., Budgeon, C., Siffleet, J., (2013), The effect of an acidic cleanser versus soap on the skin pH and micro-flora of adult patients:A non-randomised two group crossover study in an intensive care unit. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 29(5), 291-296, United Kingdom, Churchill Livingstone, DOI: 10.1016/j.iccn.2013.03.005.
  • Squire, M., Riley, T., (2013), Clostridium difficile infection in humans and piglets: a `one health? opportunity. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 365(2013), 299-314, Springer, DOI: 10.1007/82-2012-237.
  • Collins, D., Hawkey, P., Riley, T., (2013), Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in Asia. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 2(1), Article number 21, United Kingdom, BioMed Central Ltd., DOI: 10.1186/2047-2994-2-21.
  • Blackwood, B., Thompson, G., McMullan, R., Stevenson, M., Riley, T., Alderdice, F., Trinder, TJ., Lavery, G., McAuley, D., (2013), Tea tree oil (5%) body wash versus standard care (Johnson?s Baby Softwash) to prevent colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in critically ill adults: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 68(5), 1193-1199, United Kingdom, Oxford University Press, DOI: 10.1093/jac/dks501.
  • Aravena-Roman, M., Beaz-Hidalgo, R., Inglis, T., Riley, T., Martinez-Murcia, A., Chang, B., Figueras, M., (2013), Aeromonas australiensis sp. nov., isolated from irrigation water. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 63(PART 6), 2270-2276, United Kingdom, The Microbiology Society, DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.040162-0.
  • Thomsen, N., Hammer, K., Riley, T., Belkum, A., Carson, C., (2013), Effect of habituation to tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil on the subsequent susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. to antimicrobials, triclosan, tea tree oil, terpinen-4-ol and carvacrol. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 41(4), 343-351, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2012.12.011.
  • Knight, D., Riley, T., (2013), Prevalence of gastrointestinal clostridium difficile carriage in Australian sheep and lambs. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79(18), 5689-5692, DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01888-13.
  • Carson, K., Boseiwaqa, L., Thean, S., Foster, N., Riley, T., (2013), Isolation of Clostridium difficile from faecal specimens ? a comparison of chromID C. difficile agar and cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 62(2013), 1423-1427, United Kingdom, The Microbiology Society, DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.056515-0.
  • Vaughan-Higgins, R., Bradfield, K., Friend, JA., Riley, T., Vitali, SD., (2013), Erysipelas in a numbat (myrmecobius fasciatus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 44(1), 208-211, Florida, United States, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, DOI: 10.1638/1042-7260-44.1.208.
  • Boulos, R., Man, N., Lengkeek, N., Hammer, K., Foster, N., Stemberger, N., Skelton, B., Wong, PY., Martinac, B., Riley, T., McKinley, A., Stewart, S., (2013), Inspiration from Old Dyes: Tris(stilbene) compounds as potent gram-positive antibacterial agents. Chemistry: A European Journal, 19(52), 17980-17988, Wiley, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201303119.
  • Knight, D., Thean, S., Putsathit, P., Fenwick, S., Riley, T., (2013), Cross-Sectional Study Reveals High Prevalence of Clostridium difficile Non-PCR Ribotype 078 Strains in Australian Veal Calves at Slaughter. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79(8), 2630-2635, American Society for Microbiology, DOI: 10.1128/AEM.03951-12.
  • Ireland, D., Greay, S., Hooper, C., Kissick, H., Filion, P., Riley, T., Beilharz, M., (2012), Topically applied Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil causes direct anti-cancer cytotoxicity in subcutaneous tumour bearing mice. Journal of Dermatological Science, 67(2), 120-129, Elsevier Ireland Ltd. , DOI: 10.1016/j.jdermsci.2012.05.005.
  • Sun, W., Jacoby, P., Riley, T., Bowman, J., Leach, AJ., Coates, H., Weeks, S., Cripps, A., Lehmann, D., (2012), Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: A cohort study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 12(21 December 2012), Article no.366, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-366.
  • Foster, N., Riley, T., (2012), Improved recovery of Clostridium difficile spores with the incorporation of synthetic taurocholate in cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar (CCFA). Pathology, 44(4), 354-356, United Kingdom, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Ltd., DOI: 10.1097/PAT.0b013e328353a235.
  • Aravena-Roman, M., Inglis, T., Henderson, B., Riley, T., Chang, B., (2012), Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Aeromonas strains isolated from clinical and environmental sources to 26 antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 56(2), 1110-1112, DOI: 10.1128/AAC.05387-11.
  • Hutton, P., Durmic, Z., Ghisalberti, E., Flematti, G., Duncan, R., Carson, C., Riley, T., Vercoe, P., (2012), Inhibition of ruminal bacteria involved in lactic acid metabolism by extracts from Australian plants. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 176(1-4), 170-177, Amsterdam, Netherlands, Elsevier BV, DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2012.07.020.
  • Stabler, R., Dawson, L., Valiente, E., Cairns, M., Martin, M., Donahue, E., Riley, T., Songer, J., Kuijper, E., Dingle, K., Wren, B., (2012), Macro and micro diversity of Clostridium difficile isolates from diverse sources and geographical locations. PLoS One, 7(3), Article no. e31559, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031559.
  • Sudjana, A., Carson, C., Carson, K., Riley, T., Hammer, K., (2012), Candida albicans adhesion to human epithelial cells and polystyrene and formation of biofilm is reduced by sub-inhibitory Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) essential oil. Medical Mycology, 50(8), 863-870, Oxford University Press , DOI: 10.3109/13693786.2012.683540.
  • Sathyendran, V., Riley, T., Roberts, S., Freeman, J., (2012), Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm caused by toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Anaerobe, 18(3), 270-272, Camden, UK, Academic Press, DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2012.01.006.
  • Verwer, P., Robinson, J., Coombs, G., Wijesuriya, T., Murray, R., Verbrugh, H., Riley, T., Nouwen, J., Christiansen, K., (2012), Prevalence of nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in healthcare workers in a Western Australian acute care hospital. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: an international journal on pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases, 31(6), 1067-1072, DOI: 10.1007/s10096-011-1408-6.
  • Hammer, K., Carson, C., Riley, T., (2012), Effects of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) essential oil and the major monoterpene component terpinen-4-ol on the development of single- and multistep antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial susceptibility. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 56(2), 909-915, DOI: 10.1128/AAC.05741-11.
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